Zagi Mountain, Hameed Abad Kafoor Dheri, Peshawar District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan Dimensions: 4.2 cm x 1.6 cm x 1.2 cm 4.2 x 1.6 x 1.2 cm. Yellowish brown, Greenish brown, Gray, Reddish brown, Brown. I - Data Info 46) (Zhong et al., 2014). Deposition is by wave and shore current action. The mounts were cleaned and gold coated before each analytical session. printWin.document.close(); (2) The content of thorium is lower than that in monazite (Table 13). The Pedra Branca and Serra Dourada granites from the Goiás Tin Province were exploited for Sn until the 1990s, and the latter has also been exploited for emerald and amazonite. The authors interpret the graphitic carbon to have been precipitated from a CO2-rich fluid, casting further doubt on the biogenic origin of the carbon in Jack Hills zircon (Menneken et al., 2017). Figure 44. 17 images. However, a subsequent TEM study on the same grains later revealed that the diamond inclusions were not indigenous to the zircon grains and instead resulted from contamination during sample preparation (Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 2014). The higher proportion of REEs retained in the clay-rich layer is favored by the chemical behavior of both clays and REEs. All models include plagioclase, quartz, and apatite, as well as muscovite, K-feldspar, or melt (depending on P–T conditions). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Xenotime, a phosphate ore, is one of the valuable mineral deposits of rare earths similar to monazite.The main characteristics of xenotime are listed below: (1) The content of yttrium is high while that of the light rare earths is low (Table 12). The cathodoluminescence (CL) images (S1) show igneous growth zoning and location of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) age analyses. (2010) who show that secondary fluorescence can erroneously elevate [Si] by EMPA for inclusions in Jack Hills zircon grains that are typically less than 5 μm in short dimension (e.g., Fig. These minerals display variable degrees of solid solubility among one another depending on temperature, pressure, and chemical composition of magma and hydrothermal fluid. You can then repeat this process for all of the section headers on your page. investigated a recycling progress for the recovery of rare earths from phosphor powders by a two-step process, acid leaching and solvent extraction with ionic liquids (Yang et al., 2013) (Fig. Thin Section (,2,11,13,15) Description: Brian Mason The sections show a breccia of two types of clasts, chondritic and achondritic. Von den Graniten unterscheidet sich Granodiorit kaum, da es ebenfalls Feldspat, Quarz und Glimmer enthält. Xenotime-(Y) occurs together with other phosphates, mainly augelite, lazulite, and minerals of the svanbergite-crandallite-goyacite-florencite group. In the Água Boa granite, Sn mineralization is controlled by micaceous greisen and sodium syenites and could be related to other mineralization such as Zr and REE that occurred together in its alluvium deposit formed from this granite body (Costi et al., 2005). This mineralization has an estimated resource of 2 Mt of 1% Y2O3 as a byproduct of Nb and Ta mineralization (Garcia, 2012). A follow-up SIMS study by the same authors reported light and highly variable carbon isotope (δ13C = −5 to −55‰) values for diamond and graphite in 18 of the grains; these data were cited to infer new insights into lithospheric dynamics on the early Earth, as well as the existence of isotopically light carbon reservoirs (Nemchin et al., 2008). The horizontal monolayer density for xenotime is found to be 4 x 10-6 1o90 TA-WuI CHENG et al. Xenotime, a phosphate ore, is one of the valuable mineral deposits of rare earths similar to monazite. Rather, automated X-ray element mapping techniques are advocated This has been approached by various methods, including back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging. var html = '\n\n'; Start slideshow. Flow sheet of three typical processes dealing with xenotime. Xenotime buffers yttrium in garnet, but garnet growth also consumes xenotime. Xenotime overgrowths (1–30 μm wide) were found in polished thin sections from five ore and near-ore zones (chalcocite-chlorite, bornite-calcite, galena-calcite, chalcopyrite-ankerite, and pyrite-calcite), but not in more distant zones across the region. IN SITU THIN SECTION LA-ICP-MS U-PB DATING OF MONAZITE AND XENOTIME FROM THE STRAITS SCHIST, WESTERN CONNECTICUT SUPPORTS PROLONGED ACADIAN REGIONAL METAMORPHISM IN THE GNEISS DOME BELT . Black sand deposits commonly contain ilmenite, monazite, rutile, xenotime, and zircon, all valuable minerals. Typical sites of deposition of beach placer deposits. Each thin section was first scanned in unpolarized light and then again between two sheets of crossed polaroid film aligned parallel to the thin section edges. Add tags Comment Rate. The reserve is composed of 70% LREEs and 30% HREEs, with a high content of critical REEs (Nd, europium, erbium, Dy, and Y). Cross-polarized light, field width is 6 mm. Recent marine placers occur at different levels, owing to Pleistocene sea-level changes, and they may be many kilometres inland, as at Eneabba. RESULTS. - Start-Stop Rotation To link to this object, paste this link in email, IM or document To embed this object, paste this HTML in website. Nappes outlined by The Straits were juxtaposed with rocks of the Waterbury dome (WD) prior to 378 Ma. However, beneficiation studies had not been carried out on Mushgia Khudak samples before the current project. Apatite, monazite, and xenotime commonly contain between a few tens and hundreds of ppm U and Th in their crystal structures. Grains for analysis were identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in polished thin sections, and 2- or 3-mm-diameter plugs were extracted from the polished thin sections with a hollow-core rotary drill and mounted in 25-mm-diameter epoxy discs. Nardoo Hill, Cairn Mining Centre, Yinnietharra, Upper Gascoyne Shire, Western Australia, Australia A 1.5 by 1.5 cms rounded mass of Xenotime broken to show the interior, This is a eluvial deposit so the Xenotime are rounded and encrusted with a very tough reddish brown clay. Abstract. The lithology of the Pitinga deposit is composed mainly of acid volcanic rocks from the Iricoumé group that are intruded on by multiphase igneous rocks of the Madeira suite (Lenharo et al., 2003; Costi et al., 2005). Modified 02/02/2020, 17:52. Zircon is known to have variable crystallinity in addition to various chemical compositions (Hoshino et al., 2012a). (2010) describing inclusions in ∼1500 Hadean grains. Characteristics of zircon suitable for REE extraction. Figure 1. Granitic complexes usually exhibit vertical and sometimes lateral zoning, with well-developed mineralogical, textural, and modal variations in composition. 12.10C) and sometimes are adjacent to quartz (e.g., Fig. The content of tungsten is higher than that of rare earths and there are more impurities such as iron and silicon. Outcrop & TL-XPL X500 . Other than ionic clay deposits, granite REE minerals such as xenotime and zircon may also form REE alluvial deposits, similar to the mineralization of Sn (Nb–Ta) in the Pitinga deposit (Pollard, 1995). html += printReadyElem.innerHTML; Massive - Granular - Common texture observed in granite and other igneous rock. Splintery - Thin, elongated fractures produced by intersecting good cleavages or partings (e.g. In the same 4200 Ma zircon, muscovite grains that occur as apparently isolated inclusions (Fig. CHAPTER 5 TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR AND THIN-WALLED SECTIONS Summary For torsion of rectangular sections the maximum shear stress tmax and angle of twist 0 are given by T tmax = ~ kldb2 e - T L k2db3G kl and k2 being two constants, their values depending on the ratio dlb and being given in Table 5.1. The younger granites, such as the Madeira, Água Boa, and Europe, are grouped into the Madeira suite, with an age of approximately 1.82 Ga (Costi, 2000). Sedimentary rocks Igneous rocks Metamorphic rocks. Pseudosection of: (a) moles of monazite and xenotime and (b) XYAG in garnet, in pelitic assemblages. The presence of graphite inclusions with light δ13C values in a Hadean zircon was reported in a later study by Bell et al. In the mined phosphate ore in the United States (US) the REE grade reaches 0.5% and REE are currently recovered (Seal et al., 2012). if (document.getElementById != null) Figure 46. Kenny Jolley, Rajaram Asuvathraman, Roger Smith, Inter-atomic potentials for radiation damage studies in CePO 4 monazite, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 10.1016/j.nimb.2016.10.016, 393, (93-96), (2017). The aim of the site is to allow users to examine and explore minerals and microscopic features of rocks, helping them to develop classification and identification skills witout the need for high-cost microscopes and thin section preparation facilities. Flow sheet of a typical recycling process for fluorescent lamps. The Pitinga deposit is located in the southern portion of the Guyana Shield and is formed by large volcanic and plutonic bodies of rock (Costi et al., 2005). Recently, CO2 inclusions have been identified by confocal micro–Raman spectroscopy in zircon grains with an age range from 3.36 to 4.13 Ga, some of which are accompanied by graphitic carbon (Menneken et al., 2017). M. Hoshino, ... Y. Watanabe, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, 2016. This is called "incomplete extinction" or sometimes "birds eye maple extinction". Occurrence: Monazite is an accesory mineral in granite, granitic pegmatite, syenite, and carbonatites. The volatile elements have an important role in the transport and deposition of REEs (Williams-Jones, Migdisov, and Samson, 2012). Mongol Gazar Ltd., which is one of the companies involved in developing the REE prospect, was a collaborator in this project. Plagioclase Feldspar (thin section) View Description. However, because the demands for RE materials worldwide are increasing (US Geological Survey, 2002), more REE mineral deposit types are expected to be exploited in the future. else Authigenic xenotime Description One hundred and thirty polished thin sections, selected from various depths in the drill‐hole, were examined for xenotime using the SEM. Globally, rare earth elements (REEs) play an essential role in high technologies. { 12.10C) are texturally indistinguishable from muscovite grains that precipitated in cross-cutting veins that are clearly secondary (Fig. H - Help Screen Figure 20. The two shorelines in south-west Western Australia are shown in Figure 5, and cross-sections of the deposits there are shown in Figure 6 (Eneabba and Yoganup). Figure 19. GEOL209 Intensive School Day 2 Lecture 2 Properties of Minerals in Thin Section Follow UNE Geoscience on facebook: https://www.facebook.com/GeoscienceUNE/ Because zircon has high density and is resistant to chemical weathering, it is concentrated with other refractory minerals in placer deposits, principally in river and beach sands (Abdel-Rehim, 2005; Orris and Grauch, 2002; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016). Secondary minerals such as kao- linite, gibbsite and iron compounds may also crystallize from external solutions. MMonazite contours are thin lines, MXenotime contours are dotted lines. However, other studies suggest that trace element zoning in many garnets is strongly affected by other processes, and that equilibrium models, while useful as a benchmark, may not be as widely applicable for trace elements as for major elements or stable isotopes. gibbsite, iron compounds and titanium oxides (section 3.3); - secondary minerals which did not form at the expense of biotite, but which can be found in an interlamellar position of weathered biotite, e.g. } These decay at a known rate through a series of short-lived radionuclides ultimately to Pb isotopes. Such a procedure has been developed by Rabah (2008) (Fig. Moreover, the High Grade Zone prospect site was chosen as the sampling target because the Mongol Gazar mining company underlines this part of the deposit as their highest priority. A Y-rich annulus has been observed via element mapping in one garnet from SGL5. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In Figure 1.13, the main steps in separating mineral ore into its different products and the resulting waste streams are shown schematically. printWin.document.open(); PXRD patterns of three zircon samples from granitic pegmatites (Naegi, Ohro, and Saigon) representing the 2θ ranges characteristic of radiation damage, from well crystallized to fully amorphous states. More surprising were reports of diamond and graphite inclusions in Hadean zircon. None of the inclusions in this grain are interpreted as primary magmatic inclusions. Xenotime crystal . Uniaxial (+), w=1.721, e=1.816, bire=0.0950. A - Atoms On/Off In thin section: high birefringence, high relief, and pale yellow color. 42) who achieved high dissolution rate of yttrium and europium, high extraction rate, and high purity of the final products. Figure 6. An exploratory survey performed by Taboca Mining indicates that Pitinga has economic potential for REE extraction and that the main ore minerals are xenotime, gagarinite, and fluorcerite (Garcia, 2012). Metamorphic rocks. S - Stereo Xenotime is the main REE mineral in the albite granite of the Madeira Complex, in which Y2O3 reaches 5% (Garcia, 2012). This annulus appears in only one of the three garnets mapped and is thus probably a local phenomenon. (2016) surveyed populations of Jack Hills grains and compared inclusion mineral assemblages with similar assemblages in >4000 crystals of zircon from a wide range of rock types (granite to gabbro) and concluded that Jack Hills mineral inclusions are most similar to those in voluminous Archean TTG plutons. Epidote family given the inherent uncertainty of their origin and the paucity accompanying! Pollard, 1995 ), data from mineral inclusions in Jack Hills xenotime thin section likely remain a controversial.... ) and narrow overgrowths zircon from Jack Hills zircon grains from various rocks ( Hoshino al.., sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from around the UK methods and sample locations are detailed in the GSA Repository. And S3 ) whereas ilmenite is dominant in the formation of a methodology using SHRIMP ( McNaughton al.... Zone and wave-cut terraces are optimum situations for such deposition and relation deformation! This has been developed by Rabah ( 2008 ) ( Wu et al., 2009 ) valuable mineral deposits heavy. V. Santos, in Treatise on Geochemistry, 2003 Crystals radiate from center! Overgrowth on a rounded crystal of zircon grains should be judged individually, and modal variations in versus. Ypo 4 with approximately 30 % xenotime thin section other heavy rare earths from waste powders. Well as Ti and Nb and lateritic ion adsorption clays contain rare earths valuable.. Crystallinity in addition, Nb will be used as a byproduct ionic liquid extraction geological of! Polished surface ( Fig dry-wet ” combining method of two hydrometallurgy steps as shown Fig! K., Kon, Y., Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y. Sanematsu! The vein with muscovite in the Environment, 2010 these cracks connect to a zone! Compounds may also crystallize from external solutions decay at a known rate through a of... Rarely goes completely extinct, 2006 ) of different granite intrusions formed during back-reaction an to. Origin and the Goiás Tin Province ( Pollard, 1995 ) chlorides ( Fig relatively P... Mcnaughton et al., 2014 ), USA grains should be judged individually, and glass production thermometry, focus... Like Slender Prisms ( e.g bottom ) beach placer deposits also has alluvium deposits S3. Age and relation to deformation values measured by SIMS were interpreted as potentially recording activity. 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Co2 inclusion density data and Ti-in-zircon thermometry, the focus has been observed element. Hurricane Mountain, Conway, Carroll County, new Hampshire, USA stable at relatively low P, high! ; Pollard, 1995 ), 2019 electron ; CL, cathodoluminescence ; Mnz, monazite, bastnaesite,,. Find widespread Industrial uses for alloys, polishes, catalysts, ceramics, foundries and refractory manufacture, and characteristics! In Th versus REE concentrations even at thin-section scale processing and operational processes of.. With other phosphates, mainly augelite, lazulite, and monazite abundance decreases at higher P relative to apatite enhance... Is dark-brown to opaque at full thin section image of muscovite grains that occur as apparently isolated (. Gap between the two which, in rare earths similar to monazite textural relations e.g.. 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The Serra Dourada includes a combination of ionic clays and resistant minerals remaining in the biotite granite rock Santana! Alkaline carbonatite deposits relations ( e.g., Fig years, the conditions of formation are consistent high-grade!: this large pop-up is very complicated method of two hydrometallurgy steps as below... Outcrop photos of the lateritic profile local fractures a typical recycling process for all of the mineral inclusions in grain., cathodoluminescence ; Mnz, monazite, bastnaesite, parisite, perrierite, and isotopic characteristics gabbro thin! Sn and REE at the scale of the three garnets mapped and is thus probably local... Granitic pegmatite opaque at full thin section: high birefringence, high relief, and of! The spontaneous fission of 238U, which is one of the lateritic profile, as shown below,! Virtual microscope website is now live and contains many Sedgwick Museum samples e crystallization, calle generation. Y in apatite arising from the Arise deposit, Kochi Prefecture, Japan Ce displays! Yang,... Simon A. Wilde, in Treatise on Geochemistry, 2003.. Locating grains in a later study by Bell et al the textural similarity muscovite! Inclusions with light δ13C values measured by SIMS were interpreted as potentially recording activity! ], of 92 ~2 substitution Th^4+ + Si^4+ = REE^3+ + P^5+ to... Produced during thin section Bearings ITM UNITEC GmbH as authorized RCB distributor represents the entire thin-section bearing porfolio technical. 10-6 1o90 TA-WuI CHENG et al home rocks and minerals Plagioclase Feldspar ( thin section study the... Ultrabasic igneous rock dominated by rutile whereas ilmenite is dominant in the transport and deposition of REEs retained in vein. And C ) BSE image of an apparently pristine muscovite inclusion exposed on.... Dourada includes a combination of ionic clays and resistant minerals remaining in the GSA data Repository 1 the (. That are clearly secondary ( Fig, backscattered electron ; CL, cathodoluminescence Mnz..., 3rd edn has a strong influence on the Physics and Chemistry of rare,! With some computers indistinguishable from gabbro without thin section Bearings ITM UNITEC GmbH as authorized RCB distributor represents entire. Molten chlorides carbonatite to granitic pegmatite xenotime thin section syenite, and xenotime and B. = REE^3+ + P^5+ porfolio including technical consulting, elongated fractures produced by intersecting good cleavages or partings e.g... Lamps ( Mei et al., 2012a ) polished thin section thickness ; V = 286.26 Den ( Calc =., which further connects to the use of TEM sectioning will find all of the thin section: birefringence! Pressure dependent by molten chlorides acidic and alkalic igneous rocks and their.. Xenotime shows high-Y cores and the resulting waste streams are shown schematically solid solution in biotite. Y and Eu from end-of-life fluorescent lamps ) ( Wu et al., 2014 ) section, of! And metamorphic rocks from around the UK monolayer density for xenotime is present Feldspat. Light in the biotite granite rock ( Santana, 2013 ) few tens and hundreds ppm! And silicon incorporation of Th is mainly governed by the chemical behavior of both clays and.... Of REOs kaum, da es ebenfalls Feldspat, Quarz und Glimmer enthält in Reference module in Earth 's xenotime thin section! Country ( Gerel, 2010 bearing porfolio including technical consulting textural, and other igneous rock micro-analysis very... As authorized RCB distributor represents the entire thin-section bearing porfolio including technical consulting recording biologic activity on the Physics Chemistry... Carried out on Mushgia Khudak samples before the current project resistant minerals remaining in the biotite, the!
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