Malterud K: Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2009, 6 (10): 1-11. Access is therefore a central consideration; the researcher needs to come to know the case study site(s) well and to work cooperatively with them. In keeping with previously published work, we acknowledge the importance of theory to underpin the design, selection, conduct and interpretation of case studies[2]. case study definition: 1. a detailed account giving information about the development of a person, group, or thing…. 10.1111/j.1365-2575.2004.00176.x. A case definition must be clear, simple, and concise, allowing it to be easily applied to all individuals in the population of interest. Health Serv Res. producing findings that may be transferable to other settings)[1]. The precise beginning and end of the case may however prove difficult to define. A nursing case study is a detailed study of an individual patient, which allows you to gain more information about the symptoms and the medical history of a patient and provide the proper diagnoses of the patient’s illness based on the symptoms he or she experienced and other affecting factors. Yin suggests two or three literal replications (i.e. 10.1186/1748-5908-1-1. They are written according to a specific format. 1999, 34: 1209-1224. Case study research has sometimes been criticised for lacking scientific rigour and providing little basis for generalisation (i.e. 10.1177/1534735407313395. See Reportable case Forensic medicine A civil or criminal action or event. 2008, 7: 5-17. PubMed Google Scholar. AS conceived this article. PubMed Central  A case study is a research approach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context. 1995, London: Sage Publications Ltd. Sheikh A, Smeeth L, Ashcroft R: Randomised controlled trials in primary care: scope and application. Bombastic words for essay writing spm. Our aim in writing this piece is to provide insights into when to consider employing this approach and an overview of key methodological considerations in relation to the design, planning, analysis, interpretation and reporting of case studies. Presenting detailed critiques, typically of one or more patients, aims to provide insights into aspects of the clinical case and, in doing so, illustrate broader lessons that may be learnt. Here, we focus on the main stages of research activity when planning and undertaking a case study; the crucial stages are: defining the case; selecting the case(s); collecting and analysing the data; interpreting data; and reporting the findings. Medical Care Case Study Legal, moral, and ethical controversies happen often in health care. Miles MB, Huberman M: Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. He has helpfully characterised three main types of case study: intrinsic, instrumental and collective[8]. Keen J, Packwood T: Qualitative research; case study evaluation. This prominent stakeholder had already selected the NHS sites (through a competitive bidding process) to be early adopters of the electronic health record systems and had negotiated contracts that detailed the deployment timelines. analytical generalisation) or to test theory by replicating the findings in a second or even a third case (i.e. California Privacy Statement, Selected cases need to be not only interesting but also hospitable to the inquiry [8] if they are to be informative and answer the research question(s). In a collective case study, researchers may choose to present the findings from individual cases separately before amalgamating across cases. In contrast to experimental designs, which seek to test a specific hypothesis through deliberately manipulating the environment (like, for example, in a randomised controlled trial giving a new drug to randomly selected individuals and then comparing outcomes with controls),[9] the case study approach lends itself well to capturing information on more explanatory 'how', 'what' and 'why' questions, such as 'how is the intervention being implemented and received on the ground?'. 2002, London: Sage. Choosing a "typical" case may enable the findings to be generalised to theory (i.e. 10.1177/1471301205049188. 10.1016/S0168-8510(01)00187-7. Implementation Science. 2004, 14: 343-362. Our study of patient safety in undergraduate curricula drew on an evaluation-based approach to design and analysis, which emphasised the importance of the academic, organisational and practice contexts through which students learn (Table 4)[6]. Sheikh A, Panesar SS, Lasserson T, Netuveli G: Recruitment of ethnic minorities to asthma studies. The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. Synonym Discussion of case. International trade dissertation topics case study on tb meningitis, font size of research paper. 10.1057/jit.1998.8. The outcome of providing this information might be that the emotive burden associated with participation, or the organisational disruption associated with supporting the fieldwork, is considered so high that the individuals or sites decide against participation. Qualitative research in health care. Empirical Evaluation of Agile Software Development: The Controlled, Typical is this title from the June 2016 issue: ", In the first part, we directed students to read the, Unlike a scientific article, the abstract for a, If the student candidly discloses information in public settings, is it reasonable to assume that it can be reshared without consent in a, When the students completed the scenario, they were asked to complete a 20-question survey evaluating the, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Real Food (2019 Edition): The Strategy That's Transforming Sports Nutrition - Features 10 Case Studies of Products that are Successfully Harnessing the Strategy, Distinguishing case study as a research method from case reports as a publication type, COMPARISON OF AGILE PROCESS MODELS TO CONCLUDE THE EFFECTIVENESS FOR INDUSTRIAL SOFTWARE PROJECTS, Enhancing student engagement: a group case study approach, Case study methodology of DSS development for BIM software selection in construction industry, How to write a laboratory-based case study for the journal, Commentary: critical reflections on the ethical and professional considerations in writing about clients, Virtual case studies help students in developing career Skills, Case Technologies to Enhance Literacy Learning. Case study sites may also be pre-selected for the researcher, with decisions being influenced by key stakeholders. Case study findings can have implications both for theory development and theory testing. [16] studied an elderly married couple living with dementia to explore how dementia had impacted on their understanding of home, their everyday life and their relationships. 1985, Newbury Park: Sage Publications. replication logic)[1]. 1993, Cambridge: Polity Press. doctors and/or nurses). The collective case study involves studying multiple cases simultaneously or sequentially in an attempt to generate a still broader appreciation of a particular issue. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. For example, our selection of case study sites in the evaluation of the implementation and adoption of electronic health record systems (see Table 3) was heavily influenced by NHS Connecting for Health, the government agency that was responsible for overseeing the National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT)[5]. In so doing, we make passing reference to the different epistemological approaches used in case study research by key theoreticians and methodologists in this field of enquiry. Google Scholar. Though inherently challenging, the research case study can, if carefully conceptualised and thoughtfully undertaken and reported, yield powerful insights into many important aspects of health and healthcare delivery. Journal of Medical Case Reports will consider any original case report that expands the field of general medical knowledge, and original research relating to case reports.. Case reports should show one of the following: Unreported or unusual side effects or adverse interactions involving medications BMJ. Google Scholar, King G, Keohane R, Verba S: Designing Social Inquiry. Case definitions are used in ongoing public health surveillance to track the occurrence and distribution of disease within a given area, as well as during outbreak investigations in field epidemiology. 10.1108/09513550510608903. 2009, London: Sage Publications Ltd., 4. Article  George AL, Bennett A: Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. Writing such a report and doing this kind of research allows medical students to study phenomena in depth, understand the patient’s condition better, and search for effective treatment alternatives.Professional medical case study writers are at your service! 2004, 59 (7): 634-, CAS  its scope, beginning and end), the relevant social group, organisation or geographical area of interest to the investigator, the types of evidence to be collected, and the priorities for data collection and analysis (see Table 7)[1]. volume 11, Article number: 100 (2011) CAS  drawing on a particular conceptual framework); respondent validation (i.e. the nature of different cancer care programmes), before considering the emerging similarities and differences in cross-case comparisons (e.g. Information and translations of case study in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05627-6. Yin RK: Case study research, design and method. Article  We draw in particular on four of our own recently published examples of case studies (see Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4) and those of others to illustrate our discussion[3–7]. Care must be taken to ensure the anonymity of both case sites and individual participants (if agreed in advance) by allocating appropriate codes or withholding descriptors. Bloomfield BP, Best A: Management consultants: systems development, power and the translation of problems. 2003, Naples, The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/11/100/prepub. 2. a. This approach may be useful in medical education to provide critical analyses of teaching and learning, and to reveal the underlying elements of leadership and innovation. Pursuing this same example, when does the process of implementation and adoption of an electronic health record system really begin or end? Learn more. Cresswell KM, Worth A, Sheikh A: Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare. A case definition defines a case by placing limits on time, person and place. Our focus was on how the technology was being implemented. A detailed analysis of a person or group, especially as a model of medical, psychiatric, psychological, or social phenomena. Medical case studies are a part of that process, but they are more than just education material. Repeated reviewing and sorting of the voluminous and detail-rich data are integral to the process of analysis. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. How to use case in a sentence. The case study approach allows, amongst other things, critical events, interventions, policy developments and programme-based service reforms to be studied in detail in a real-life context. PubMed  The title of medical case report should reflect the content clearly; so that readers can quickly find the information they are looking for. PubMed  2010, 41: c4564-. case study EBM (1) An in-depth analysis and systematic description of one patient or group of similar patients to promote a detailed understanding of their circumstances. In the social and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a particular case. The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. Journal of Information Technology. J Health Serv Res Policy. Doolin B: Information technology as disciplinary technology: being critical in interpretative research on information systems. An initial coding frame can help capture these issues and can be applied systematically to the whole dataset with the aid of a qualitative data analysis software package. Pearson P, Steven A, Howe A, Sheikh A, Ashcroft D, Smith P, the Patient Safety Education Study Group: Learning about patient safety: organisational context and culture in the education of healthcare professionals. Meaning of case study. A case study can be defined in a variety of ways (Table 5), the central tenet being the need to explore an event or phenomenon in depth and in its natural context. PubMed Central  Hellström I, Nolan M, Lundh U: 'We do things together': A case study of 'couplehood' in dementia. Education dissertation literature review how to write an a level english literature comparative essay the case study is a research method in which Examples of study medical case. 10.1136/bmj.322.7294.1115. 2001, 358: 483-488. In contrast, the other three examples (see Tables 2, 3 and 4) employed collective case study designs to study the introduction of workforce reconfiguration in primary care, the implementation of electronic health records into hospitals, and to understand the ways in which healthcare students learn about patient safety considerations[4–6]. Lancet. Article  case study - a detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view analysis - an investigation of the component parts of … Green J, Thorogood N: Qualitative methods for health research. Here, quantitative measures were collected with questionnaires before, and five months after, the start of the intervention which did not yield any statistically significant results. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. Info Systems J. Theoretical frameworks may also play an important role in integrating different sources of data and examining emerging themes. 2000, 320: 50-52. Of particular importance is the obligation for the researcher to think through the ethical implications of the study (e.g. In contrast to the intrinsic case study, the particular case which is chosen is of less importance than selecting a case that allows the researcher to investigate an issue or phenomenon. PLoS Med. Google Scholar, Yin R: Case study research: design and methods. The case study approach can offer additional insights into what gaps exist in its delivery or why one implementation strategy might be chosen over another. How to use case study in a sentence. predicting similar results) if the theory is straightforward and five or more if the theory is more subtle. 1996, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Crowe, S., Cresswell, K., Robertson, A. et al. Qualitative interviews with patients however helped provide an insight into potentially beneficial process-related aspects of the programme, such as greater, perceived patient involvement in care. Google Scholar. In contrast, the instrumental case study uses a particular case (some of which may be better than others) to gain a broader appreciation of an issue or phenomenon. Google Scholar. It is important that data sources from different cases are, where possible, broadly comparable for this purpose even though they may vary in nature and depth. Learn more about this type of research by reading the article. Attention needs to be paid to variations within each case and, where relevant, the relationship between different causes, effects and outcomes[23]. The case study approach. Mason J: Qualitative researching. Theory and its role in integrating different sources of data and examining emerging themes producing findings that may be to. A long tradition in clinical practice yin R: Enhancing the quality of study! The emerging similarities and differences in cross-case comparisons ( e.g approach to scientific enquiry Huberman M: research! 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